Studies on viruses in Plantago species.

by J. Hammond

Publisher: University of East Anglia in Norwich

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 177
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Edition Notes

Thesis(Ph.D.)- University of East Anglia, School of Biological Sciences, 1980.

ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14512083M

  A virus is an infectious non-living particle that cannot survive on its own. The life cycle of the virus is a series of steps that enable the virus to infect a host and replicate itself. Explore virus structure, structure of virus, viral structure types, and functions of virus structure.   () —Introduced generalist plant viruses from other hosts that encounter native plant species for the first time pose a greater threat to plant biodiversity in south-west Australia than. The species that is known as a robin in England has a yellow breast, and another species that is known as a robin in the United States has a red breast. Which statement about common names does this fact best exemplify? More than one common name may be used for the same species. Common names differ among various locations. This feature news channel highlights experts, research, and feature stories related to alternative and renewable energy sources and the oil and gas economic situation that stimulates the industry.

  Virus Characteristics. Viruses can be extremely simple in design, consisting of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat known as a capsid is composed of smaller protein components referred to as capsid+genome combination is called a nucleocapsid.. Viruses can also possess additional components, with the most common being an additional .   Other viruses may damage plants used in landscaping. Some viruses that infect agricultural food plants include the name of the plant they infect, such as tomato spotted wilt virus, bean common mosaic virus, and cucumber mosaic virus. In plants used for landscaping, two of the most common viruses are peony ring spot and rose mosaic virus. For example, a branch of biology called virology studies viruses, which exhibit some of the characteristics of living entities but lack others. It turns out that although viruses can attack living organisms, cause diseases, and even reproduce, they do not meet the criteria that biologists use to . Virus species. The traditional definition of a species for an organism is an interbreeding population that shares gene flow. As viruses have no sexual exchange process, a virus species must be defined by its lineage. A virus species is thus “a polythetic class of viruses that constitute a replicating lineage and occupy a particular ecological.

Thirty-three varieties of 24 species of plants and 19 species of vertebrates and invertebrates were experimentally inoculated with Ebola Zaire virus. Fruit and insectivorous bats supported replication and circulation of high titers of virus without necessarily becoming ill; deaths occurred only among bats that had not adapted to the diet fed in the laboratory.   Viruses are infectious pathogens, and plant virus epidemics can have devastating consequences to crop yield and quality. Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV, belonging to family Potyviridae) is one of the leading pathogens that affect the sugarcane crop every year. To combat the pathogens’ attack, plants generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the first line of defense whose . Cairns has a favorite virus — herpes. This is a virus that infects people and can cause sores on the mouth, face and genitals. Having a favorite virus isn’t so weird for Cairns, though. She’s a virologist — someone who studies viruses — at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Studies on viruses in Plantago species. by J. Hammond Download PDF EPUB FB2

Plant viruses are significant as they affect our food supply and are capable of rapidly spreading to new plant species, so a comprehensive study of plant viruses is important in understanding their pathogenesis and prevention.

This book focuses on the plant virus evolution, their molecular classification, epidemics and by: 1. This book focuses on the evolution of plant viruses, their molecular classification, epidemics and management, covering topics Studies on viruses in Plantago species.

book to evolutionary mechanisms, viral ecology and emergence, appropriate analysis methods, and the role of evolution in taxonomy. The currently emerging virus species. A better understanding of these cellular processes will help us design antiviral strategies for plants.

The book provides in-depth information on plant virus gene interactions with hosts, localization and expression and the latest advances in our understanding of plant virus evolution, their responses and crop improvement. Ongoing studies for discovery of viral species in non-cultivated plants utilize genomic approaches for systematic unbiased searches for viruses related to known viruses.

Genomic approaches use various combinations of methods for sampling the environment, enriching samples for content of viral genomes, amplifying nucleic acids, and detecting. Viruses are ubiquitous within all habitats that support cellular life and represent the most important emerging infectious diseases of plants.

Despite this, it is only recently that we have begun to describe the ecological roles of plant viruses in unmanaged systems and the influence of ecosystem properties on virus evolution.

We now know that wild plants frequently harbor infections by Cited by: 5. It is important to note that most known viruses studied in crops induce an acute infection in crop plants, whereas in wild plants viruses cause infections that are often unapparent and seem to.

Plant viruses cause severe diseases leading to enormous crop loss. The present day viral researches of economic plants are centered on identification of virus, molecular characterization and. The ways in which these studies provide the intellectual framework for research into the life of viruses continues to expand.

Plants, animals and other organisms present viruses with very different environments, both structurally and biochemically, and this may be the reason why so few virus groups span host kingdoms, but a few do, and studies.

(insect DNA viruses that are distantly related to polydna - viruses) and reoviruses (RNA viruses that include genera which infect plants, fungi, insects, fish and mammals) have wasp vectors, and some of these viruses are also mutualists of these vectors.

Diadromus pulchellus asco - virus 4 (DpAV4), from the wasp Diadromus pulchellus. The single‐stranded DNA viruses of the Geminiviridae are represented by two viruses in the namely Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), both having huge economic importance representing billions of US dollars of losses, much of which is exacerbated by efficient transmission via whitefly vectors.

Plant DNA viruses of the genus Begomovirus have been documented as the most genetically diverse in the family Geminiviridae and present a serious threat for global horticultural production, especially considering climate change.

It is important to characterize naturally existing begomoviruses, since viral genetic diversity in non-cultivated plants could lead to future disease epidemics in crops. Evidence of what viruses are capable of doing when they invade mixed species populations of plants comes from studies on: (i) mixed sown and wild plant species populations growing in commercial pastures; and (ii) natural pasture situations involving mixtures of wild plant species.

In these studies, virus infections altered the species. Search the world's most comprehensive index of full-text books. My library. It is supposed that infecting virus can interact with expression product in transgenic plants and can potentially modify the biological properties of the existing virus, ultimately leading to creation of new virus species which have novel pathogenic properties, host range and altered transmission specificity.

Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published inwhich lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.

It is the first work to consistently apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants. INTRODUCTIONMost studies of plant viruses have focused on the acute viruses that cause disease in crop and ornamental plants.

These viruses are transmitted horizontally, often by insect vectors, and are occasionally transmitted vertically. Although known for at least four decades, the persistent viruses of plants are very poorly studied.

2. Plant Viruses and Invasive Species. In general invasive species can be more robust in a new environment because they have left behind pathogens in their native habitat, a phenomenon known as pathogen ve species of plants can be aided in their invasions by plant viruses in a number of different ways.

Generation of genetic diversity in plant virus populations. Genetic diversity of a population can be defined as the probability that two genetic variants randomly chosen from the population are different [].Two mechanisms are the main sources of genetic variation in viruses during their evolutionary process: mutation and genetic exchange.

This book attests to the huge diversity of research in plant molecular virology. Written by world authorities in the field, the book opens with two chapters on the translation and replication of viral RNA. Following chapters cover topics such as viral movement within and between plants, plant responses to viral infection, antiviral control measures, virus evolution, and newly emerging plant.

In a new study, researchers apply big-data analysis to reveal the full extent of viruses' impact on the evolution of humans and other mammals. Your source for the latest research news. The study by Dr. Suttle and his colleagues, published earlier this year in the International Society of Microbial Ecology Journal, was the first to count the number of viruses falling onto the.

Circulative viruses, in contrast, live in the aphid's gut and require an incubation period before successful transmission. They are persistent viruses and an aphid, once infected, remains a vector for life. Circulative viruses have fairly specific virus–aphid–plant linkages and any given virus is transmitted by only one or few aphid species.

Plant viruses have obvious importance for food crops and ornamental plants, and a range of viruses are responsible for an estimated $60 billion in crop losses worldwide each year. Others viruses may damage plants used in landscaping. Some viruses that infect agricultural food plants include the name of the plant they infect, such as tomato spotted wilt virus, bean common mosaic virus, and cucumber mosaic virus.

In plants used for landscaping, two of the most common viruses are peony ring spot and rose mosaic virus. Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.

It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the.

A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.

Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in   A new study reconstructing the evolutionary tree of flu viruses challenges conventional wisdom and solves some of the mysteries surrounding flu outbreaks of historical significance, including the influenza pandemic of The research is likely to change how scientists and health experts look at the history of influenza virus, as well as how it travels among birds, humans, horses and pigs.

Viruses are extremely small, approximately 20 - nanometers in diameter. The largest virus, known as the Mimivirus, can measure up to nanometers in diameter. By comparison, a human red blood cell is around 6, to 8, nanometers in diameter. In addition to varying sizes, viruses also have a variety of shapes.

Virus - Virus - Evolution of new virus strains: Viruses that infect animals can jump from one species to another, causing a new, usually severe disease in the new host. For example, in a virus in the Coronaviridae family jumped from an animal reservoir, believed to be horseshoe bats, to humans, causing a highly pathogenic disease in humans called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Because of their small genomes, viruses have played a major role in elucidating many of the concepts in molecular biology, and the study of plant viruses has produced several of the major findings for virology in general.

The major steps in reaching the current understanding of viruses are. Below is a list of chapters from the Campbell's Biology, 8th Editon textbook that we have slides for. These slides will cover all of the key points of the chapter and will be useful when studying for the AP Biology exam or any other Biology test.Structure.

Viruses are extremely small and can only be observed under an electron structure of a virus is given by its coat of proteins, which surround the viral ly of viral particles takes place spontaneously. Over 50% of known plant viruses are rod-shaped (flexuous or rigid). The length of the particle is normally dependent on the genome but it is usually between.The study is “an important piece of the puzzle in understanding why viruses [from bats] may be emerging and impacting people and other animals,” says Kevin Olival, a disease ecologist with.